1 MULTIMETHOD APPROACH
What Is Behavioral Research?
Theory and Research
Validity and Reliability
Why Do Behavioral Research?
Specific Methods
Multimethod Approach
Knowledge Is Connected
Dealing with reactivity
Pilot Study
Longitudinal and Crosssectional Research
General Laws and Local Conditions
Practical Experience
Summary
2 ETHICS IN BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH
Protecting the Welfare of Research Participants
Outside Review
Confidentiality and Anonymity
Deception
Comment on participant risk
Issues of Scientific Misconduct
Psychologists' Code of Ethics
Anthropologists' and Sociologists' Code of Ethics
Local Procedures
Summary
3 SEARCH THE TECHNICAL LITERATURE
Source Credibility
Primary and Secondary Sources
Scientific
Journal Articles
Books of Readings
Books
Mass Media
Internet
Finding Reverences
How Far to Search?
Metaanlaysis
Searching the World Wide Web
Electronic Newsletters, Journals, Abstracts, and Reports
Additional Resources
Citation Search
Direct Consultation
Summary
4 OBSERVATION
Casual Observation
Systematic Observation
How to Be a Good Observer
Reliability in Systematic Observation
Qualitative Approaches
Participant Observation
Ethnography
Doing Qualitative Observation
Stresses on the Observer
Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research
Equipment
Limitations
Summary
5 MAPPING AND TRACE MEASURES
Mapping
Behavioral Maps
PlaceCentered Maps
IndividualCentered Maps
Limitations
Cognitive Maps
Limitations
Trace Measures
Limitations
Summary
6 EXPERIMENTATION
The Special Nature of the Experiment
Variables
Independent and Dependent Variables
Variables in Experiments
Generating Hypotheses
Operational Definitions
Example: Dressing for Success
Experimental Control
Eliminating or Holding Extraneous Variables Constant
Subjects
Experimenter
Setting
Apparatus
Procedure
Measurement of Extraneous Variables
Using a control group
Using subjects as their own controls
Limitations of repeated measure designs
Doing an Experiment
Getting Ideas
Designing and
Running an Experiment
Types of Experiments
True experiments
Quasiexperiments
SingleSubject Experiments
Equipment
Using the Internet
Limitations
Summary
7 SIMULATION
What Is a Simulation?
Environmental Simulations
Games
Roleplaying Exercises
General
Comments
Limitations
Summary
8 INTERVIEW
Uses and Types of Interviews
Unstructured Interviews
Structured Interviews
Semistructured Interviews
Telephone
Interviews
How to Interview
Deciding What to Ask
Obtaining Permission
Street Corner Interviews
Setting the Stage
Nonverbal Aspects
Pacing and Timing
Probes
Recording the Information
Minimizing Sources of Error
Tact and Diplomacy
Ending the Interview
Analyzing the Results
Coding
Reporting Interview Results
Limitations
Focus Groups
Strengths and Limitations
Summary
9 THE QUESTIONNAIRE
Questionnaire Construction
Content
Format
Openended and Closed Questions
Ranking versus Rating
Matrix Questions
Measuring the Middle Position
Combining Question Types
Number of Questions
Wording Your Questions
Balance
Layout
Introductory Statement
Question Order
Answer Format
Closing Statement
Pretesting
Reproducing the Questionnaire
Distributing the Forms
Group Meetings
Individual Distribution
Mail Surveys
Cover letter
Increasing Return Rates
Scoring
Interpretation
Describing Survey Results
Comparison of Interviews and SelfAdministered Questionnaires
Internet Surveys
Limitations
Summary
10 ATTITUDE AND RATING SCALES
What Is a Scale?
Rating Scales
Limitations
Levels of Measurement
Attitude Scales
Likerttype Scale
Construction
Initial Administration and Scoring
Selecting the Final Items
Validity and Reliability
Limitations
Semantic Differential
Selection of Terms
Length and Layout
Scoring
Limitations
Performance Rating Scales
Limitations
Consumer Rating Scales
Limitations
Sensory Evaluation
Limitations
Summary
11 CONTENT ANALYSIS
Quantification in Content Analysis
Use
Finding Categories
Sampling
Sampling Print Media
Sampling Other Media
Reliability
Limitations
Summary
12 PERSONAL DOCUMENTS AND ARCHIVAL MEASURES
Personal Documents
Research Diaries
Activity Log
Personal Diaries and Journals
Letters
Limitations
Life Histories
Autobiography
Biography
General comments
Limitations
Archival measures
Uses
Finding Data
Underreporting and bias
Limitations
Summary
13 CASE STUDY
Advantages of a Case Study
Choosing a Topic
Unusual Individuals
Obtaining Cooperation
CrossVerification
Observation
Trace Measures and Physical Artifacts
Public and Private Records
Limitations
Summary
14 ACTION RESEARCH
Tradeoffs
Selfsurvey
Other Techniques
Steps in Action Research
Why Action Research Is Different
Tower or Swamp?
Summary
15 THE BIG FUZZIES: RESEARCH ON DIFFICULTTODEFINE CONCEPTS
Positive Psychology
A Word on Qualitative Research
Summary
16 STANDARDIZED TESTS AND INVENTORIES
What is a Test?
Test Reliability and Validity
Using Tests and Inventories
Locating Suitable Tests
Obtaining the Tests
Constructing a Test
Limitations
Summary
17 SAMPLING
Types of Samples
Probability Sampling
Random Sample
Stratified Sample
Nonprobability Sampling
Quota Sample
Purposive Sample
Convenience Sample
Generalization from Probability and Nonprobability Samples
How Large a Sample?
Gaining Access
Measuring Nonrespondent Bias
Describing the Method of Sampling
Limitations
Summary
18 DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
Descriptive Statistics for Categorical Measures
Descriptive Statistics for Continuous Measures
Measures of Central Tendency
Mean
Median
Mode
Measures of Variability
Range
Standard Deviation
Figures
Types of Figures
Bar graphs
Line graphs
Pie charts
Guidelines for Figures
Statistical Tabulation and Analyses
Calculators
Computers
Software for Data Analysis
Summary
19 INFERENTIAL STATISTICS
First, Some Background
Testing the Null Hypothesis
Alternative Hypothesis
Probability Levels
Statistical Tests for Continuous Data
A Precondition
Comparing Two Groups  the t test
t ratio for Independent Groups
Interpreting the t ratio
Hand calculation
Understanding the computer printout
t ratio for Paired Scores
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Oneway ANOVA
Hand Calculation
Understanding the Computer Printout
Advanced ANOVA designs
ANOVA for Groups of Unequal Size
Factorial Design
Repeated Measures Design
Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)
Multivariate Designs (MANOVA)
A Statistical Test for Categorical Data: ChiSquare
Hand Calculation
Understanding the computer printout
Limitations of Chisquare
Correlation
Pearson ProductMoment Coefficient (r)
Hand Calculation
Understanding the computer printout
Spearman Rankorder Coefficient
Computing ranks
Hand calculation
Understanding the computer printout
Correlating a Continuous Variable with a Ranked Variable
Other Measures of Correlation
Presenting the Results of Statistical Tests
Limitations of This Chapter
Summary
20 WRITING AND REVIEWING A RESEARCH REPORT
Article for a Scientific Journal
Title Page
Abstract
Introduction
Method
Participants
Apparatus/materials
Setting
Procedure
Results
Tables and Figures
Discussion
References
Helpful Hints
Technical Reports
Executive summary
Appendix
Writing a Critique
Need for Empathy
Summary
21 AFTER THE REPORT
Feedback to Participants
Further Research
Publishing the Findings
Research Journals
Choosing a Journal
Drafts
Dealing with Rejection
Preprints
Page Proofs
Reprints
Other Publication Outlets
Application
News Releases
Professional Meetings
Tips for Talks
Poster Sessions
Summary
22 CONCLUDING NOTES
Helpful Hints
